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Resource Centre > National collective redress models > Swedish model

The Swedish Class Actions Act 2003 is perhaps the closest to the U.S. class actions model among all the European group litigation mechanisms. However, it also has some very specifically 'European-style' features.

It is an opt-in action, which can be brought by three categories of persons:

  • individuals (who must also be group members)
  • non-profit organisations which protect consumer or wage-earner interests, or
  • public bodies which have been approved by the government to represent groups of the kind which is being represented in the particular case.

There are stricter certification requirements than in the US model (commonality of circumstances and grounds, larger part of the claims cannot be pursued individually, group being properly defined, appropriate representation).

Other features include:

normal loser pays rule applies (again, contrary to the US model), except for small claims.

settlements must be approved by the court.

For a more detailed analysis of the Swedish model and updates see the Stanford Law School Global Class Actions Exchange.