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  • CDR/Consumer ADR

    Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms which serve consumers are sometimes called Consumer ADR. In a more shorter version the term Consumer Dispute Resolution (CDR) is used. Leading CDR schemes operate on digital files. CDR models cover a wide range of processes from arbitration-style ADR to sophisticated Ombudsman.


  • Civil Justice

    Civil justice is a broad term historically denoting judicial systems designed to produce legal remedies in non-criminal disputes.

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  • Civil Procedure

    Rules governing proceedings before civil courts. The EU has for many years been pursuing a policy of harmonization of civil procedure rules of its Member States – as part of the policy of Judicial Cooperation in Civil and Commercial Matters.

  • Class Action

    A civil procedure which originated in the United States, based on Rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. It is essentially a representative procedure – a number of representative claimants take legal action in the name of all members of the class claiming damages.

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  • Collective Redress

    Collective redress is an umbrella term to denote systems designed to compensate multiple parties for a common infringement. It includes a wider category of redress mechanisms than those based on litigation: it can also involve public enforcement by regulators or ombudsmen (see also the Consumer Protection Cooperation Regulation), the use of ADR mechanisms, or various compensation schemes or funds (see no-fault compensation).

    See also class action, group actions, representative actions.

  • Compensation, Damages

    Money payable in compensation for a civil wrong.

  • Conciliation

    Another form of ADR, which is very similar to mediation. It is voluntary, led by an impartial and independent conciliator, whose decision is not binding on the parties.

  • Criminal Justice

    Criminal justice, as distinct from civil justice, is a system of rules and practices by which public authorities, including criminal courts, exercise social control, deter crime, and sanction with criminal penalties those who breach the law.