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Another form of ADR. Ombudsmen can be regarded as an advanced form of ADR as they normally have a wider range of functions. This starts by capturing complaints and identifying problems. They are trying to solve them and proposing redress measures. But also providing information and feedback. A monitoring allows learning on improvements.
Online Dispute Resolution / ODR
An EU platform that allows consumers and traders to settle disputes relating to online purchases with the assistance of an impartial dispute resolution body.
Opt-out and Opt-in collective actions
Opt-out collective action, once the class/group is certified, includes all those class members who have not opted out. See for instance the U.S. Class action model. Opt-in collective action requires an act of opting in for a potential class/group member to become formally a class/group member. Most European collective litigation models are opt-in procedures.