Alternative Dispute Resolution / ADR
Various out-of-court mechanisms for resolving disputes and providing redress. There is a wide variety of types of such mechanisms across the EU, which you can find out more about by clicking on the links:
(Tribunals normally are not treated as ADR mechanisms, as their jurisdiction is mandatory rather than voluntary, and their proceedings are more 'judicial' and formal in nature).
ADR has grown exponentially in popularity, as a valuable and cost-effective alternative to court proceedings. It is also a very important element of EU Consumer Policy. Further information about current developments in the area of ADR across Europe can be found in our 'Topics' area.