Civil Justice

Civil justice is a broad term historically denoting judicial systems designed to produce legal remedies in non-criminal disputes. It covers a wide variety of issues: including tort and contractual claims, personal injury, medical (clinical) negligence, consumer law, employment law, housing, neighbourhood issues, divorce and relationship breakdown, children, discrimination, welfare benefits, homelessness, domestic violence, immigration and mental health issues. These can be resolved through courts, but a majority of civil justice disputes are resolved using mechanisms of ADR. Both civil procedure in courts and ADR mechanisms are being under constant reform – both on the EU level and on the Member State level.

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